Integrated pest management, or IPM, is a process you can use to solve pest problems
while minimizing risks to people and the environment. IPM can be used to manage all
kinds of pests anywhere—in urban, agricultural, and wild land or natural areas.
With IPM you'll use the most selective pesticide that will do the job and be the safest for other organisms and for air, soil, and water quality; use pesticides in bait stations rather than sprays; or spot-spray a few weeds instead of an entire area.
The most effective, long-term way to manage pests is by using a combination of methods that work better together than separately. Approaches for managing pests are often grouped in the following categories.
Biological control is the use of natural enemies—predators, parasites, pathogens, and competitors—to control pests and their damage. Invertebrates, plant pathogens, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrates have many natural enemies.
Cultural controls are practices that reduce pest establishment, reproduction, dispersal, and survival. For example, changing irrigation practices can reduce pest problems, since too much water can increase root disease and weeds.
Mechanical and physical controls kills pest directly or make the environment unsuitable for it. Rodent Traps are examples of mechanical control. Physical controls include mulches, steam sterilization of the soil or barriers such as screens to keep birds or insects out.
In IPM, pesticides are used only when needed and in combination with other approaches for more effective, long-term control. Also, pesticides are selected and applied in a way that minimizes their possible harm to people and the environment.